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Bioelectrography History


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#1 Korotkov



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Posted 03 August 2014 - 07:04 PM

GDV Bioelectrography History
Since 500BC icon_smile.gif?w=474
500BC – Testing of genuine amber by static process in China
1541-1603 – Electroscope, William Gilbert
1602-1686 – Electrostatic machine, Otto Querricke & Hauksbee, 1661-1713
Resulted in the reproduction of electrical phenomena in the laboratory
1622 – Magnetic declination varies with time, Edmund Gunter
1671 – Electric organ of torpedo fish studied, Francesco Redi
1672 – Living tissues react to environment, Francis Glisson
1702 – Air at low pressure glows during an electrical discharge, Hauksbee
1704 – Electrons, particles, wave forms. Newton
1729 – Photometry, Pierre Bouger
1729 – Electric current, Stephen Gray
1731 – Anything can be charged with static electricity if isolated by non conductive materials, Stephen Gray
1733 – Two types of static electric charge, like charges repel whilst unlike charges attract, (later opposed by Benjamin Franklin),
Charles Francois de Cistemay
1746 – Leyden Jar (Leiden) for storing static electricity Pieter Van Musschenbrooek & E G Pieter got a shock when using it suggesting a connection between lightning, VonKleist
1747 – A pointed conductor draws off an electric charge from a charged body, Benjamin Franklin
1747 – First electrometers, Abbe Jean-Antoine Nollet (Paris)
1756 – Electricity and the origin of light and the wave theory, Mikhail Valilievich Lomonosov
1766 – That all nerves follow a path through the spinal column to the brain and that the nerves stimulate the muscles, A Von Haller
1766 – Improved electrometer, Horace Benedict de Saussure (Suisse)
1766 – Chart of magnetic inclination, Johna Wicke (German)
1771 – Tissue conduction of electricity, Luigi Galvani
1775 – Early electrical condensers, Alessandro Volta
1777 – Electrographic images, G C Lichtenberg
Attached File  15-Georg_Christoph_Lichtenberg_Big-001.jpg   19.86KB   0 downloads1777 – GERMANY
He obtained, with dust particles, under Statics Electricity, anything that we can consider as being primitive “Bioelectrographic Images” and those primitive images, in electrified dust were named, by him, as Electro-graphics”.
Attached File  2-PostitiveFigure.jpg   16.52KB   0 downloadsLICHTENBERG’S IMAGES
Attached File  03-Tesla.jpg   14.09KB   0 downloads Nikola Tesla (CROATIAN)

He showed, in a public presentation, a luminous halo around human body and another objects while exposed to a strong electromagnetic field with high A.C. voltage and high frequency. But he considered this subject only as a scientific curiosity that received the general name of “Corona Effect”.
Attached File  1-guitaramp_1.jpg   31.45KB   0 downloadsAttached File  4-tesla.jpg   16.06KB   0 downloadsTESLA COIL
1892 – RUSSIA
Attached File  17-narkevich-001.jpg   45.49KB   2 downloads J. J. NARKIEVITCH-JODKO
On an electricized plate, he obtained a type of photo that he simply named Electric Photography, in black and white colors, and started to investigate, through this technique, the human potencialities, but he did not continue his work.
Later on, already during the middle of XXth Century, his work was taken back by M. Pogorelski, in Russia, and by B. J. Navratil, in Czechoslovakia, but with no other significative consequence.
1904 – BRAZIL

Attached File  06-morua1.jpg   14.25KB   0 downloads Father Roberto Landell de Moura
(A Brazilian Jesuit Catholic Priest)
Besides to be a priest, he was a Physicist too and, in Porto Alegre (RS), he invented an engine that he named “Bioelectrographic Machine”. He did take some hundreds of photos and named the halo around the human body as “Perianto”. He researched on this subject during 8 (eight) years, until 1912, when he was obliged by Catholic Church to stop those researches.
1904/12 – BRAZIL

Attached File  18-morua-001.jpg   49.82KB   0 downloads Father Roberto Landell de Moura

We can consider that Fr. Landell was the pioneer of the first scientific and systematic researches on the Bioelectrography field, during 8 years, at worldwide level. However, Catholic Church, in that period, did not allow he continued his researches because of purely doctrinary reasons and confiscated almost all of his notes, but many of those reports escaped and are in a safe place, the current Fr. Roberto Landell de Moura Museum, in Porto Alegre (RS) – Brazil.
1939 – RUSSIA
Attached File  08-581190_399546333412984_97657280_n.jpg   11.11KB   0 downloads SEMYON D. KIRLIAN
Semyon and Valentina Kirlian

In Krasnodar, former URSS, he re-invented the Bioelectrographic Camera, now renamed as Kirlian Camera, and started systematic and scientific researches, helped by several Soviet Scientists. Those researches were revealed to the rest of the world only in 1960, during a Congress on Parapsychology.
1967 – BRAZIL
Attached File  01-newton.jpg   15.84KB   0 downloads Prof. Newton Milhomens

At the end of 1967, in Brasilia (DF), he built his first Kirlian Camera, based on a Soviet electronic scheme, starting his scientific researches in Psychological Clinics, in 1968, and, later on, in Hospitals. Moving to Rio de Janeiro (RJ), in 1981, in that city he continued his researches. Currently, he is living in Curitiba (PR), ever since 1983.
1969 – GERMANY

 Attached File  09-pitermandel.jpg   12.63KB   0 downloadsDr. Peter Mandel, PhD

Engineer, he built his Kirlian Camera and started to realize all his researches taking Kirlian Photos only in black and white colors because he postulates that the other colors can disturb its interpretation. He is only interested in the fractal structures and shapes produced by the grooves, to diagnose the several organic problems, according to the Acupuncture Meridians. By this reason, he needs to take Kirlian Photos of both the hands and the feet simultaneously.
YEARS 1970s
It was published the book “Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain” that was writen by the American press-women Sheyla Strander and Lynn Schroeder, that popularized worldwide the Semyon Kirlian researches. So, hundreds of persons, in all countries, started to build Kirlian Cameras and began to research with this new device, some of them in an amateur manner but another persons used a systematic and scientific manner. Unfortunately, this subject was divulged by International Press with sensationalism considering the Kirlian Photo as a mystic and supernatural subject.
1970 – BRAZIL
Dr. Paulo de Castro Teixeira, a Homeopathic Pharmaceut from S?o Jos? do Rio Preto (SP), built his Kirlian Camera and take hundreds of Kirlian Photos of several persons, before and at each 15 minutes, after those persons had ingested any homeopathic remedy, and he found several types of modifications, in the Kirlian Photos. He published several books, in Portuguese, all about his researches in this field and, till today, he is living in S?o Jos? do Rio Preto (SP), where he is the owner of a Pharmaceutic Industry that produces Homeopathic remedies.
1972 – BRAZIL

Dr. Hernani G. Andrade
He always was considered the greatest divulger of Spiritism in Brazil. He built his Kirlian Camera, in S?o Paulo (SP), and took many hundreds of Kirlian Photos of plants and human beings intending to prove the existence of Spirit with them, not only in human beings, but even in bacteria too. He only divulged his researches in Spiritist Magazines and Congresses mainly at the State of S?o Paulo (SP) where is considered the greatest one.
Attached File  Krippner.jpg   27.57KB   0 downloads Dr. Stanley Krippner, PhD
Psychologist and Parapsychologist, published the book “The Kirlian Aura” in which he described all that was known in that period, about Kirlian Photos, under a scientific approach.
Attached File  TMoss.jpg   6.29KB   0 downloads Dr. Thelma Moss, PhD
Psychologist and Professor of University of California, she started her researches on Kirlian Photos and published the book “The Probability of the Impossble”, where she reported her initial researches. Later on, she published another book “The Electric Body” in which she described her last researches in that University and showed to all, the reasons which provoked her removal, all of them were the result of pure preconception.
Attached File  2-Thelma_Moss2.jpg   39.63KB   0 downloadsAttached File  41U8JouR8CL.jpg   12.55KB   0 downloads

Attached File  iumab.jpg   62.34KB   0 downloads It was founded IUMABInternational Union of Medical and Applied Bioelectrography, the maximum and the greatest Organization, at worldwide level, on Bioelectrography. Today, IUMAB is recognized by UNO/WHO and is considered by this UNO’s Organization as the maximum Bioelectrographic Organization on world whose rules, recommendations, directives and other acts are valid and must be observed in Bioelectrographic researches, courses, standards, etc.
1983 – BRAZIL
It was published, in Brazil, the book “Kirlian Photos – How to Interpret”, in Portuguese, whose author was Prof. Newton Milhomens, the first, on world, to teach how to diagnose almost all about the main problems of organic and psychic health using Kirlian Photos, where he described in details the way and the results of his researches, since 1968.
1983 – BRAZIL
Attached File  01-newton.jpg   15.84KB   0 downloadsProf. Newton Milhomens founded at Curitiba (PR) , his Industry and started to produce his first models of Kirlian Cameras which were initially sold to Brazilian doctors, psychologists and therapeuts.
1985 – RUSSIA
Attached File  24-kg-001.jpg   9.88KB   0 downloads Dr. Konstantin Korotkov, PhD
Physicist, Professor of the University of Saint Petersburg, after innumerable researches with a team of scientists of that University, he discovered that Kirlian Effect is the result of the ionization of gases and vapors exhaled by our skin, through the pores. He named this model GDV (Gas Discharge Visualization) or, simply, GDV Technique.
1986 – BRAZIL
At Curitiba (PR), the Ist Brazilian Congress on Kirliangraphy was realized with more than 250 Brazilian researchers on Kirliangraphy that came from all Brazil. During this Congress, it was approved by unanimous decision the “Newton Milhomens Standard” as the Brazilian Official Standard of Kirliangraphy.
1987 – BRAZIL
It was published (in Portuguese) in Revista do Hospital das Foras Armadas (Magazine of the Brazilian Armed Forces Hospital), a scientific magazine on Military Medical Area, a Scientific Article entitled “Kirliangraphic Diagnosis on Oncololy” that was written by two military doctors from Curitiba (PR): – Drs. J?lio Grott and H?lio Grott Filho. They discovered a sign that they named “fracture”, which is the sign able to diagnose cancer in human beings.
Prof. Newton Milhomens was invited to dictate some lectures at Buenos Aires to hundreds of persons. By this way, Kirliangraphy with a scientific approach was introduced in that South American country.
During this period of 8 years, hundreds of articles, theses of post-graduation, and several books using Kirlian Photos, were published at several countries on world, including Brazil. Some of those books were written in an amateuristic manner but other ones, however, were written seriously with many scientific and systematic foundation and accurate statistic treatment. Thus, the scientific phase of Kirliangraphy was starting.
Prof. Newton Milhomens was invited to dictate a lecture on Kirliangraphy at Lisbon, Portugal, during a Congress on Parapsychology, sponsored by Escola Superior de Biologia e Sa?de (Superior School of Biology and Health) and so, he introduced Kirliangraphy with a scientific approach in Portugal. During this period, he taught Kirliangraphy as an official matter subject of the course of Naturopatic Medicine in that Portuguese University.
Prof. Newton Milhomens returned to Portugal to teach Kirliangraphy in Superior School of Biology and Health, at Lisbon, Portugal. This event was noticed by several local newspaper and the Tass TV Agency, from Russia, asked for him an interview that would be shown to all the russian territory to demonstrate that a Brazilian was teaching in Europe a Russian technique based on an engine that was invented by a Russian, Semyon Kirlian.
1995 – RUSSIA
Attached File  12-kg2.jpg   14.02KB   0 downloadsDr. Konstantin Korotkov, PhD
After many years of researches, he was succeeded to build a new Kirlian Camera which declines the photographic film and puts the GDV image directly at a computer’s screen. It was a new milestone in the History of Bioelectrography.
1996 – THE “WAVE”

Induced by the success of the researches on Kirlian field, radiotechnicians on all countries around the world started to produce Kirlian Cameras from “backyard”. It was the radiotechnicians worldwide “wave”…
As their unique intention was merely commercial, they never were interested in a standard and these “backyard standard” Kirlian Cameras never had a good quality and no stability but were enormously cheap, because they used the worse electronic components and also because anyone of these “producers” never made or had any participation in any kind of scientific experiment on Kirlian field and no one of them had any universitary education and the outsiders of Kirlian researches started to use the Kirlian Camera searching Mysticism and Supernatural exploring this new “commercial mystic field” in Fairs and Parks what was again divulged by International Press with much more sensacionalism and the name “Kirlian” lost credibility.
American    Brazilian   French Argentinian
Any samples of “backyard standards” around the world.
When the Internet becomes firm and trustable, the informations become much more easy to be interchangeable at world wide level and the Kirlian subject appeared in several homepages. Many of them were only showing interest in commercial sales and another ones, on mysticism and supernaturalism.
However, many serious homepages were taking aim at scientific publications or at a simple change of scientific informations were beginning to appear as the case of Prof. Newton Milhomens, in Brazil, Dr. Korotkov, in Russia, Dr. Peter Mandel, in Germany and many other homepages from serious researchers around the world.
Prof. Newton Milhomens was invited by Dr. Robert Beasley (center) to dictate a lecture on Kirliangraphy in a Congress at Auckland, New Zealand, where he knew Dr. Tom Chalko (right) that was researching on Kirliangraphy at Melbourne, Australia.
1999 – RUSSIA
In the beginning of this year, Ministry of Health, in Russia, declared that Kirliangraphy was Officially Admitted as a Scientific Fact and its main appliance was recommended in Medical Practice.
In September, the Russian Academy of Sciences, during a Congress in Moscow, with more than 300 of the most renown russian scientists, officially admitted Kirliangraphy as a SCIENTIFIC FACT.
1999 – BRAZIL
Attached File  26-kg3-001.jpg   12.87KB   0 downloadsIn April, at Curitiba (PR), occurred the IVth Brazilian Congress of Kirliangraphy, with the presence of more than 200 persons and the Russian Physicist, Dr. Konstantin Korotkov, PhD, was invited to be the special international invited lecturer.
2000 – RUSSIA
Prof. Newton Milhomens was invited as Honor Invited Lecturer to a Congress that occurred at Saint Petersburg. During a certain night, inside a ship on Ladoga Lake, he was honored because he was the first researcher on world to have discovered how to diagnose problems of psychic and organic health using Kirlian Photos.
2000 – BRAZIL
Sponsored by IUMAB it was realized, at Curitiba (PR), the Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy-2000, with the presence of 350 persons, where 45 of them were europeans. There were 5 lecturers from several European countries and 5 ones from Brazil.
During the Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy-2000, were presented two new discoveries on organic health area: – The signs that shows Allergic process, by Dra. Celia Cruz, from St Paulo, and the scientific proof of Flower therapy efficiency, by Prof. Rodrigo Campos, from Minas Gerais.
During the Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy-2000, at Curitiba (PR), a meeting of IUMAB Directory occurred and the executives deliberated that, on all the world, would be valid only 3 (three) OFFICIAL WORLDWIDE STANDARDS of Kirlian Cameras (in alphabetic order):
Brazil – Newton Milhomens Standard
Germany – Peter Mandel Standard
Russia – Konstantin Korotkov Standard
Left – Camera and Kirlian Photo of “Newton Milhomens Standard” – Brazil
Center – Camera and Kirlian Photo of “Peter Mandel Standard” – Germany
Right – Camera and Kirlian Image of “Konstantin Korotkov” – Russia
During the same Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy – 2000’s meeting, Dr. Konstantin Korotkov was elected by unanimous decision the President of IUMAB, by a period of 4 years.
Prof. Newton Milhomens was elected the Vice-President of IUMAB on Brazil, and also the IUMAB’s Official Plenipotentiary Representative on Brazil.
Yet during the same Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy-2000, the Rector of UNESC – Universidade do Extremo Sul de Santa Catarina (University of the Extreme South of Saint Katherine), Brazil, officially informed that Kirliangraphy would be introduced in that University, as official subject Matter in the Courses of Medicine and Psychcology, with official authorization from Brazilian Ministry of Education.
Yet during the same Vth Worldwide Conference on Kirliangraphy-2000’s meeting, the IUMAB’s Directory deliberated by unanimous decision to change, from day 12/01/2000 toward, the name Kirliangraphy to Bioelectrography, in honor to Fr. Roberto Landell de Moura, the first researcher on world to use this name and to research on this subject during the period from 1904 to 1912.
It happened a ceremony of homage to Fr.Landell symbolized by the delivery of a bust of him to Dr. Korotkov by Profa Vania Abatte, Curator of the Landell de Moura’s Museum, at Porto Alegre (RS), Brazil.
The letter from Dr. Korotkov, as IUMAB’s President, confirming to exhibit the bust of Fr. Landell in Kirliangraphy Museum, in Russia, what really came to be true.
2000 – RUSSIA
The Fr. Roberto Landell de Moura’s bust is in exhibition in the Kirliangraphy Museum, in Russia, beside the busts of Kirlian couple together a book which tells, in Portuguese, the Biography of this Brazilian eminent scientist and another book, in Russian, with the Biography of the Russian couple.
2001 – BRAZIL
The Bioelectrography is taught as official subject of the Course of Holistic Terapies, at University Est?cio de S?, in Rio de Janeiro (RJ), where the first course of How to Interpret Kirlian Photos, was taught in official manner, by Prof. Newton Milhomens, to the first graduating class in that University.
2001/2002 – AROUND THE WORLD
 Dr. Konstantin Korotkov, PhD
During this period, Dr. Korotkov was travelling to U.S.A., Europe and another countries to divulge Bioelectrography.
Prof. Newton Milhomens also was travelling to several South America countries and to all the Brazil to do the same.
2002 – BRAZIL
Several theses of Graduation and Post-Graduation, including theses of Post-PhD, were presented in several Brazilian Universities, for example, USP, UNICAMP and UFSC, in several Post-Graduation Courses of these Universities, all of them using the Bioelectrography as an auxiliary researches’ instrument.
Several Professors from USP and from another Brazilian Universities are purchasing Kirlian Cameras and realizing serious researches, on several areas of human and vegetable health using the Bioelectrography as an auxiliary instrument in their researches.
Also many of these Professors are coming to Curitiba (PR) to learn How to Interpret Kirlian Photos with Prof. Newton Milhomens.
It was officially and legally founded, at Santo Paulo (SP) , the UBBA – Unio Brasileira de Bioeletrografia Aplicada (Brazilian Union of Applied Bioelectrography) that is recognized by IUMAB and is the greatest directive Oranization in Brazil on the Bioelectrographic field. Its current President of Honor is Prof. Newton Milhomens and the current Executive President is Dr. Celia Cruz.
2003 - BRAZIL
Attached File  secao_azul.jpg   11.21KB   0 downloads Dr. Selma Milhomens
Psychologist and wife of Prof.. Newton Milhomens, began teaching in Bioelectrography UNIABEL - Open University of Educational Freedom in Curitiba (PR), as a discipline curriculum for the courses that University ofBiotherapy curitibana.
Dr. Edith Torres Noboa, Ecuador Medical, based in Cali, Colombia, degenerative disease specialist and former student of Professor. Newton Milhomens, is using the Bioelectrography as an aid to diagnosis in their patients with great success.
RUSSIA – 2002-2012
Dr. Konstantin Korotkov
Attached File  gdvcameras.jpg   78.95KB   0 downloadsDr. Korotkov is using GDV CAMERA for sport research. He is Professor, PhD, Deputy Director of Saint-Petersburg Federal Research Institute of Physical Culture. Dr. Korotkov’s Laboratory creates new GDV Software and GDV Cameras. Every year International Bioelectrography Congress collects hundreds researchers from over the World.
IUMAB community are growing. Research project Human Light System brings new Energy to IUMAB.
Attached File  bio-well1.jpg   128.59KB   0 downloadsNew model of GDVCAMERA – BIO-WELL opened next level of Electrophotonic Research.  GDVCAMERA BIO-WELL has been developed by Dr. Konstantin Korotkovand brings the powerful technology known as Gas Discharge Visualization technique to market in a more accessible way than ever before. The product consists of a desktop camera and accompanying software, which allows a user to quickly and easily conduct human energy scans. Accessory attachments, like GDV SPUTNIKBIO-COR and other are also available for purchase to conduct environment and object scans.
Attached File  sputnik-2.png   56.1KB   0 downloadsGDVSPUTNIK is a sensor and attachment system that affixes to the Bio-Well device, allowing for the energy of an environment to be read. 
Measure the energy of different places of interest during travels.
Allows you to see the influence of Moon phases, Sun storms and environmental conditions to space, and, hence, to your wellbeing.
Sputnik allows you to find the best position of a bed in your bedroom.
Measure response to human emotions, meditations, pray, both individual and collective within an environment.
Sputnik may detect the influence of music to the audience.
Light and Love, Dear Friends! Welcome to IUMAB!

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#2 Korotkov



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Posted 15 October 2014 - 04:44 PM


Electrophotosphenes and energography as a proof of existence of the physiological polar energy”. This was the name of a small book by a doctor from St. Petersburg, Messira Pogorelsky, where he described his experiments in bioelectrography. Book, published in 1893. Many photographs of the glow of fingers and toes, ears and nose show how the pattern of fluorescence varies when the psychic state of a person changes. However, this work was far from being the first one.

In 1777 a German physicist George Lichtenberg touched a metal electrode covered with glass and connected to voltage with his finger while experimenting with the electrical machine. And suddenly a burst of sparkles flew all around. This was magically beautiful, although a little bit frightening. Lichtenberg jerked back the finger and then repeated the experiment. The finger placed on the electrode was shining with bright blue light and treelike sparkles dispersed from it. Lichtenberg, being a real academic scientist, investigated the behavior of this fluorescence in detail, although he substituted a grounded wire for a finger. The effect was the same, which later suggested an idea that some special energy exists in the body, and first electrical then tor­sion properties were attributed to it. Articles by Lichtenberg, masterfully done in German, are still cited in books on gas discharge. Further research demonstrated that electrical fluorescence was not so rarely met in nature.

In the Nineteenth century enigmas of electricity were opening to people. One of the great inventors was Nicola Tesla, from whom we now have lamps and television sets. He invented the generator of alternating current. However, if it had not been him, somebody else would have done it. In­ventions come to life when a social need for them appears. Then different people simultaneously and independently start arriving at the same ideas. This is connected with the fact that the ideas have their logic of development, and the developers shall only intuitively feel this logic. After raising good money with his patents, Nicola Tesla began the mysterious experi­ments on energy transfer without wires. He did not finish his developments and died in destitu­tion, but up to now enthusiasts have been trying to investigate his ideas. We get used to our tech­nical progress and reap its fruits with pleasure, but is it the only possible way of development? At the peak of his career Tesla liked to give public lectures and impress the audience with the following experience. The light was turned off in the room, Tesla turned on the generator of his own design, stood on the platform-electrode, and his body got wrapped in the glow. The hair stood on end, glowing rays of light radiated in the space. The experiment was very ef­fective, though not all those who wished managed to repeat it: as a matter of fact, their glow was much less and for some people even missing. Not in vain was it said that Nicola Tesla had spe­cial energy state.

Further research did not go much beyond investigations of the glow of fingers, sometimes ears, nose and other prominent parts of the body. Is it possible to reproduce Tesla's experiments and make all the body glow? Yes, it is. But is it necessary? Powerful equipment, which is not safe if not handled properly, is required for such an experiment. Moreover, the stronger electrical glow, the more ozone is generated in the air. A high concentration of ozone is far from being healthy.

So where is the similarity in the experiments of Lichtenberg, Tesla and the lightning? In all those cases the gas discharge appears near the earth rod. High field intensity is formed near its sharp end when placed into an electrical field. Electrons, which always exist in the air or are emitted by the bodies, start speeding up in this field and, having picked up neces­sary speed, ionize air molecules. Those, in their turn, emit photons, mostly in the blue and ultra­violet spectral regions. Here the glow appears. What is more, from the viewpoint of physics both a nail, a tree, a human finger, and a person can be the rod. Everything depends on the scale. Generators used in Bioelectrography have very small power. It means that they can not give high current, even if you lick the electrode with your tongue. In addition, these generators make use of high-frequency voltages and short impulses, and by the laws of physiology such current can not penetrate into the organism, as it slides on the skin surface.

A significant contribution to the study of these photographs was made by a talented Byelorussian scientist Jacob Narkevich-Yodko in the end of the Nineteenth century. He was an independent landowner and spent most of his time on his estate above the river Neman. There he ac­tively experimented with electricity, applying it in agriculture and medicine. A straight parallel with modern medicine can be drawn from the description of experiments on the stimulation of plants with electrical current, on electrotherapy, and magnetism by J. Narkevich-Yodko. But the scientific achievements of our time are not just “the new as a well-lost old”. This is a new convolution of perception. In the end of the Nineteenth century, when the principles of electricity were only emerging, when the main source of light was a kerosene lamp, the searching investigators were trying to apply electricity to the most different areas of life. They were as if naming the chapters of a new book, but had not enough power to write the contents. Therefore, we find the sources of one or another modern scientific direction in the works of the enthusiasts of the Nineteenth century. J. Narkevich-Yodko developed his own original technique for making electrophotographs. He made more than 1500 photographs of fingers of different people, plant leaves, grain, and in the 1890's this research attracted attention in the scientific community. In 1892 J. Narke­vich-Yodko presented for the professors of St. Petersburg Institute of Experimental Medicine, af­ter which he was appointed a “Member-Employee of this Institute” by the order of the Institute patron, the Prince of Oldenburg. The results of Narkevich-Yodko created such an impression upon the scientific community that in 1893 a conference on electrography and electrophysiology was organized in St. Petersburg University. In the same year Narkevich-Yodko visited the scien­tific centers of Europe: Berlin, Vienna, Paris, Prague, Florence and gave lectures there. His ex­periments on electrography were acknowledged as important and envisaging further development everywhere. Narkevich Yodko received medals at several exhibitions, and at the Congress in France in 1900 he was nominated a professor of electrography and magnetism. J. Narkevich-Yodko combined scientific work with public activity. He organized a health cen­ter on his estate and received people from very different social circles: from grandees to plain people, and cured many different diseases with the help of the newest for those days, methods. But with the death of J. Narkevich-Yodko the contemporaries forgot his works. He made an in­teresting discovery, but could not overcome the barrier which had always been in the road of wide introduction. There had been so many interesting methods, inventions, developments, which disappeared together with their authors! In order to make an idea publicly acknowledged it is necessary to introduce it deep into the collective consciousness, attract students, followers, and companions. It is obligatory to publish articles, books, written by different authors and, advis­ably, in different countries. Various researchers should independently test a new idea and make sure that it is effective, but in order to do so they should have a desire! And such “over­coming of a potential barrier” usually requires more than ten years. If the author has enough per­sistence, energy, and optimism to get his own way, the idea starts living independently and sometimes the author gets the interest. If not, then not. And, naturally, much depends on the favor of “lady Luck”.

The general social situation in Russia played a role in the life of Narkevich-Yodko. Evil social winds were blowing, which turned into a hurricane having destroyed the leisurely way of life of the Nineteenth century and changed the beautiful estates above the Neman and Volga rivers into cold abandoned ruins. «No prophet is accepted in his own country», especially when this prophet thinks in a non-standard way and doesn’t fall into the usual pattern. But can a Prophet live a normal life?

At practically the same time, on the other side of the globe in Brazil, very similar experi­ments were performed by a Catholic monk, padre Landell de Morua. A monk’s life left a lot of free time, after reading prayers and performing rituals. Padre de Morua invented the technique of photoregistration of electrical glow and started giving lectures and writing to social leaders in order to attract at­tention to his offspring. Invention of padre de Morua produced much rapt attention, congratulations, banquets, but was not widespread. Then the little priest invented the radio (practically simultaneously with Popov and Markoni), but again he was unable to draw in large crowds. Even the military.

In the beginning of the Twentieth century nobody even recalled the mysterious glow. There were many other problems: wars, revolutions, breakthroughs in physics, discovery of antibiot­ics and roentgen rays – everybody was sure that it was very close to the outright victory. Only by 1930's the life more or less came right. And here appeared the mysterious glow again. And, as if by chance, it was discovered anew, but there is a rule behind every chance.

In 1939, two Czechs S. Pratt and J. Schlemmer. published photographs showing a curious glow or aura around leaves. The same year, the Russian electrical engineer Semyon Kirlian and his wife Valentina developed their own technique after observing a patient who was receiving medical treatment from a high-frequency electrical generator. Electrotherapy was popular at the time and they had noticed that when the electrodes were brought near the patient's skin, there was a glow similar to that seen in an electrified tube filled with neon. Kirlian photography consisted of placing photographic film on top of a conducting plate, and attaching another conductor to a hand, leaf, or other part of a plant. When the conductors were energized by a high frequency high voltage power source, the resulting image showed a silhouette of the object surrounded by an aura of light.

Semyon Kirlian spent most part of his life with his wife Valentina in a poor two-room apartment at the corner of Gorky and Kirov streets in Krasnodar. The wooden two-story house where they had started their family life was swept away by progress – a building program turned the small provincial town on the banks of the Kuban river into an industrial center. Kirlians were deeply carried away with the experiments with auras of live subjects, and since 1939 they had worked hard. The only rest they could afford was walking hand in hand under the trees and along blossoming fields so typical of the South Russian cities.

The Kirlians published the results of their experiments for the first time in 1958, and in 1961 reported that the characteristics of fingertip auras not only varied in different people, but was also affected by their emotional status. If someone felt very anxious or was in an opposite state of deep relaxation during meditation, there was a corresponding change in the size and intensity of the glow. Their work was virtually unknown in the West until 1970, when two Americans, Lynn Schroeder and Sheila Ostrander published their book, “Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain”. One of the most extensive investigations was carried out at the UCLA Center for the Health Sciences, where Moss and Johnson took more than 10,000 ‘modified’ Kirlian photographs, including the fingertips of over 500 people and over 1,000 leaves. They reported that human energy fields were affected by numerous factors, such as ingesting alcohol, performing yogic exercises and during hypnosis. They confirmed that the changes were most dramatic when experiencing different emotions, and that they frequently differed when the researcher and subject were of different genders, as opposed to same sex experiments. A strict authority figure, such as a senior skilled researcher, tended to elicit a much smaller corona compared to a more informal and friendlier assistant of lower status. In studies involving four “healers”, their coronas were apt to be much larger and brighter before the healing session than during or after the intervention. In contrast, their patients’ coronas increased sharply over their baseline status, suggesting there had been an actual transfer of energy to them from the healer. Dramatic differences in the corona were also found before and after acupuncture treatment. The brightness and clarity of the corona were particularly prominent when needles were inserted at acupuncture points known to be related to the patient’s particular complaints. Based on extensive investigations, the researchers concluded that these changes could not be explained by alterations in skin resistance or temperature changes due to peripheral vascular blood flow.

In XX'th century many researchers was attracted by Kirlian photography, hundreds books and papers were published, but scientific acceptance of Kirlian photography was rather limited because the quality of equipment used by early investigators varied considerably and results were inconsistent since there was no standardization. Things improved when a multidisciplinary group headed by William Eidson, professor of physics at Drexel University in Philadelphia, showed it was possible to image electrical parameters of a specimen in real time, thus making it possible to map human energy fields and any rapid changes. This six-year project and related research were summarized in a 1976 article in the prestigious journal Science. The International Union of Medical and Applied Bio-Electrography was formed in 1987 to help standardize equipment, research methods, and data acquisition. Researchers such as German naturopath and acupuncturist Peter Mandel and Newton Milhomens in Brazil developed their own way of interpretation of Kirlian photography of human fingers and toes. Peter Mandel was one of the first, who energized certain acupuncture points by using different colored lights to achieve a desired response. Mandel's Energy Analysis Emission diagnostic system utilized Kirlian photography and his Esogetic Colorpuncture therapy is believed to restore yin and yang equilibrium. All of these modalities, as well as non-invasive laser acupoint stimulation, have been used with varying degrees of success in thousands of patients over the years.

Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) technology was developed in Russia by the team of Professor Konstantin Korotkov in 1995. The GDV camera is a state-of-the-art computerized system that has superseded traditional Kirlian photography for several reasons. A major difference is that it allows direct, real-time viewing and analysis of changes in human energy fields since the data is quantified and analyzed by sophisticated software. Because the results are obtained so rapidly, it has become an ‘‘express-method’’ not only for diagnosis, but also detecting abnormalities that require more detailed investigation. Most importantly, since this technology and the protocols used are standardized, GDV results obtained by different investigators can be compared with reliability. The results are interpreted based on the energy connections of fingers with different organs and systems via meridians that have been used in acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years.

The GDV camera is based on the stimulation of photon and electron emissions from an object when it is placed in an electromagnetic field and subjected to brief electrical pulses. This process is called ‘photo-electron emission’ and has been thoroughly studied with cutting edge electronic techniques. The emitted particles accelerate in the electromagnetic field, generating electronic avalanches on the surface of the dielectric (glass) plate in a process called ‘sliding gas discharge.’ The discharge causes a glow from the excitement of molecules in the surrounding gas which is constantly measured. Voltage pulses stimulate optoelectronic emissions that are amplified in the gas discharge, and light produced by this process is recorded by a sensitive CCD (charge coupled device) camera that converts it into a colored computer image, or BIO-gram. Data obtained from the fingers of both hands are converted into a Human Energy Field image using proprietary sophisticated software,

This technology has extraordinary implications for all health related fields, including conventional as well as complementary or alternative therapies. A comprehensive review of these varied GDV applications can be found in a recent book co-authored with Dr. E. Yakovleva from Moscow Medical University. Research with the GDV device is currently being carried out at universities and research institutes worldwide in medicine, "energy medicine", athletic training, biophysics, parapsychology, and other disciplines (please, see Papers section). GDV has been used in numerous significant research projects that have confirmed its usefulness and reliability and value. GDV technology provides a convenient and user friendly method to assess patients with a wide range of complaints and can also be utilized to assess responses to drugs, meditation, stress reduction therapy or any other interventions.

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Also tagged with one or more of these keywords: Bioelectrography History, GDV, KIRLIANGRAPHY, ELECTROPHOTONICS

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